Jon Aquino's Mental Garden

Engineering beautiful software jon aquino labs | personal blog

Saturday, December 18, 2004

The Self-Directed Search® Interpretive Report
Robert C. Reardon, PhD,
and PAR Staff

General Information

Jonathan Aquino
Client ID:
Reference Group:
Test Date:




Summary Code: IAR


To get the most from your Self-Directed Search (SDS) results, read this report carefully. The report answers some of the questions most frequently asked about the SDS; it also provides lists of possible career options for you to consider as you think about your future. The report concludes with suggestions and resources to assist you with your educational and career planning.

What is the Self-Directed Search (SDS)?

The SDS is a guide to educational and career planning. It was first developed by Dr. John Holland in 1971 and subsequently has been revised three times. The SDS and this Interpretive Report are based on extensive research about how people choose careers. The SDS is the most widely used interest inventory in the world.

What is the SDS Interpretive Report based upon?

The SDS Interpretive Report helps you learn about yourself and your educational and life/career choices. It is based upon the theory that people can be loosely classified into six different groups: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC). Important information about these six types is presented below. Think about yourself as you read about the RIASEC types.

Which types are most like you?

Realistic (R) people like realistic careers such as auto mechanic, aircraft controller, surveyor, electrician, and farmer. The R type usually has mechanical and athletic abilities, and likes to work outdoors and with tools and machines.
The R type generally likes to work with things more than with people. The R type is described as conforming, frank, genuine, hardheaded, honest, humble, materialistic, modest, natural, normal, persistent, practical, shy, and thrifty.
Investigative (I) people like investigative careers such as biologist, chemist, physicist, geologist, anthropologist, laboratory assistant, and medical technician. The I type usually has math and science abilities, and likes to work alone and to solve problems.
The I type generally likes to explore and understand things or events, rather than persuade others or sell them things. The I type is described as analytical, cautious, complex, critical, curious, independent, intellectual, introverted, methodical, modest, pessimistic, precise, rational, and reserved.
Artistic (A) people like artistic careers such as composer, musician, stage director, dancer, interior decorator, actor, and writer. The A type usually has artistic skills, enjoys creating original work, and has a good imagination.
The A type generally likes to work with creative ideas and self-expression more than routines and rules. The A type is described as complicated, disorderly, emotional, expressive, idealistic, imaginative, impractical, impulsive, independent, introspective, intuitive, nonconforming, open, and original.
Social (S) people like social careers such as teacher, speech therapist, religious worker, counselor, clinical psychologist, and nurse. The S type usually likes to be around other people, is interested in how people get along, and likes to help other people with their problems.
The S type generally likes to help, teach, and counsel people more than engage in mechanical or technical activity. The S type is described as convincing, cooperative, friendly, generous, helpful, idealistic, kind, patient, responsible, social, sympathetic, tactful, understanding, and warm.
Enterprising (E) people like enterprising careers such as buyer, sports promoter, television producer, business executive, salesperson, travel agent, supervisor, and manager. The E type usually has leadership and public speaking abilities, is interested in money and politics, and likes to influence people.
The E type generally likes to persuade or direct others more than work on scientific or complicated topics. The E type is described as acquisitive, adventurous, agreeable, ambitious, attention-getting, domineering, energetic, extroverted, impulsive, optimistic, pleasure-seeking, popular, self-confident, and sociable.
Conventional (C) people like conventional careers such as bookkeeper, financial analyst, banker, tax expert, secretary, and radio dispatcher. The C type has clerical and math abilities, likes to work indoors and to organize things.
The C type generally likes to follow orderly routines and meet clear standards, avoiding work that does not have clear directions. The C type is described as conforming, conscientious, careful, efficient, inhibited, obedient, orderly, persistent, practical, thrifty, and unimaginative.
Sometimes the RIASEC letters are used to describe the areas that a person's interests most resemble. For example, we could say that one person is most like a Realistic, or R, type. Another person might be more like a Social, or S, type. Furthermore, a person often resembles several types, not just one.

How are the six types similar or different?

A six-sided figure--called a hexagon--is used to show the similarities and differences among the six types. Types that are next to one another on the hexagon are most similar. The following hexagon shows the relationships among the six types. For example, Realistic and Investigative types tend to have similar interests, but Realistic and Social types tend to be most different. Conventional types are most closely related to Enterprising and Realistic types, somewhat less similar to Social and Investigative types, but tend to be most different from Artistic types, and so on.

What does my three-letter summary code mean?

Completing the SDS helped you describe what you like--your favorite activities and interests. The three RIASEC types with the highest SDS Summary Scores are your three-letter Holland summary code. Your summary code is a brief way of saying what you like--your combination of interests.
Your interests are mostly a combination of I, A, and R. The first letter of your code shows the type you most closely resemble; the second letter shows the type you next most closely resemble, and so on. The types not in your three-letter code are the types you least closely resemble.
Your summary scores on the SDS were R = 23, I = 36, A = 29, S = 13, E = 13, C = 22. You might think of your interests as a RIASEC pie, with the size of the six slices being equal to the size of your scores on the SDS. The larger the slice, the greater your interest in that area. Score differences of less than 8 points can be considered as similar. Sometimes summary codes have tied scores, which means they are about equally interesting to you.

Can RIASEC letters be used to classify jobs and other things?

Yes. Jobs, occupations, fields of study, and leisure activities can be grouped into RIASEC areas. It is helpful to think of these as environments that are more comfortable, friendly, and beneficial for some Holland types than for others. For example, if you are a Social type, you will probably like a social environment most because social jobs require activities, values, abilities, and self-views that you have or prefer. In general, people who find environments that match their type are likely to be the most satisfied and successful.

What is included in this report?

The SDS Interpretive Report has taken your code and searched lists of 1,309 occupations, over 750 fields of study, and over 700 leisure activities in order to print examples of each for your report.
All combinations of the letters of your Holland summary code were used to build this Interpretive Report. This was done to increase your awareness of potentially satisfying occupations, and to provide you with a better understanding of your future possibilities. Remember, every code is different, and Interpretive Reports vary in the numbers of possibilities printed.

What occupations might interest me?

The SDS Interpretive Report has created a list of occupations based on the letters in your summary code. In the first column, the DOT number printed by each occupation is taken from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, a book with brief descriptions of more than 12,000 occupations.
In the second column, the numbers under ED have the following meaning:
2 means that elementary school training or no special training is required;
3 means that high school is usually needed;
4 means possibly community college or technical education is usually needed;
5 means that college is usually necessary; and
6 means that a college degree is required, with possible additional graduate education.
Occupations also differ in the amount of training needed after a person is hired. In the third column, the + marks are used to show estimates of how much specialized training is needed by a person to excel in the occupation. For example:
+ means 1-6 months;
++ means 6-12 months;
+++ means 1-2 years;
++++ means 2-4 years; and
+++++ means 4-10 years of training are sometimes needed.

Code: IAR

DOT Number


Code: IRA

DOT Number


Veterinarian, Poultry

Code: AIR

DOT Number


Landscape Architect

Code: ARI

DOT Number

Model Maker


Modeler (Brick and Tile)

Code: RIA

DOT Number

Television Technician

Lighting-Equipment Operator

Code: RAI

DOT Number

Concrete Sculptor

What fields of study might interest me?

The SDS Interpretive Report has created a list of fields of study based on the letters in your summary code.
For each field of study listed, the ED letter shows the amount of education typically required to complete the program:
A indicates a program typically offered in a junior or community college, business or technical school resulting in an Associate degree;
B indicates a program that is typically offered in a 4-year college or university resulting in a Bachelor's degree; and
P indicates a program that is typically offered at the postbachelor's level resulting in master's degree, doctorate, or similar Professional degree.
Many fields of study are offered at more than one level. Courses and training activities may help you learn more about your interests.

Code: IAR

Fields of Study

Biology, General
B, P

General Studies

Liberal Arts and Sciences/Liberal Studies
B, P

Code: IRA

Fields of Study

B, P

Cell Biology
B, P

Medical Microbiology


Code: AIR

Fields of Study

Architectural Environmental Design
B, P

Landscape Architecture
B, P

Code: RIA

Fields of Study

Commercial Photography
A, B

What leisure areas might interest me?

The SDS Interpretive Report has created a list of leisure activities based on the first 2 letters of your summary code. Getting involved in these areas may help you learn more about your interests and open up new areas of interest for you as well.

Code: IA / AI

Folk art

Free-lance (magazine) writing

Art pottery

Letter writing

Classical studies
Maritime art

Crossword puzzles

Cryptography (coding/decoding)
Science fiction reading

Fiction writing
Star photography

What does my code mean?

Some people find it easy to see which types they are like and to find useful possibilities to explore. For example, the three letters of their code may all be next to one another on the hexagon (e.g., SEA); the first letter of their code may have a summary score much higher than the second letter; or the first two code letters are adjacent on the hexagon.
Other people find it difficult to match themselves to any of the RIASEC types, and they feel that their interests are less clear or stable. For example, the letters of their code are separated by less than 8 points, and can be viewed as about the same. They are about equally interested in several areas.
Your interests are a result of what you have learned and experienced up to this point in your life. You may develop new interests related to the RIASEC types by trying out new things. Also, a person's type may become clearer as he or she grows older or has more life experiences.

What is a good fit between a person and an environment?

The hexagon can be used to estimate the degree of fit between a person and an occupation or field of study. For example, a Social person in a Social occupation fits the job well; a Social person in an Enterprising or Artistic occupation is not as close a fit but is not far off; a Social person in an Investigative or Conventional occupation is in a less compatible situation; and a Social person in a Realistic occupation is in the most incompatible situation possible on the hexagon. More precise estimates of fit involve using the second and third letters of the person and environment codes.

How can I use this report?

The SDS Interpretive Report helps you identify occupations, fields of study, and leisure areas in terms of your code and the RIASEC types. This report can help you be more certain that your occupational choice or present occupation is right for you, and that you have not overlooked another desirable occupation or field of study. However, no test or person can provide perfect assurance. Therefore, it is important to explore and learn as much as you can about yourself and the occupational and educational world.
It is suggested that you mark each possibility listed by the SDS Interpretive Report as either No Interest (NI), Unsure (U), or Good Possibility (GP). Caution--be sure possibilities you mark "NI" are not discarded because of inaccurate stereotypes or lack of information and that possibilities marked "U" are those about which you are uncertain or unfamiliar.

How can I get more information?

There are six basic ways to get information for educational and career planning. Try to use several of these activities to explore information related to your Holland codes.
1. Observe. You can learn about occupations by observing people at work and study, such as members of your family, neighbors, associates, and friends. You also can observe workers by looking at career films and videos.
2. Visit. You can make field trips, intern, or "shadow" workers on the job. Your school or organization may have a program to help you do this.
3. Listen. Talk with persons in fields of study and occupations related to your code. Make up interview questions and ask them the why, what, when, where, and how questions about their fields. Most people are pleased to talk about what they do.
4. Write. You can write to professional associations, schools, unions, and other places to get information about occupations, fields of study, and financial aid. Many of these places already have things printed to send you.
5. Read. You can learn much about occupations and fields of study by reading about them. The list of materials at the end of this report will give you a place to start.
6. Try Out. You can learn a lot about yourself by doing various activities and then thinking about your reactions. Remember, you learn from both positive and negative experiences. Fields of study and leisure activities can be useful for trying out your interests.

Career Information Resources List

A counselor at a career resource center or a librarian at a public or school library can help you locate and use the resources listed below, as well as many other career materials.
Chronicle Occupational Briefs. Four-page briefs that tell about the type of job activities, working conditions, and earnings of different occupations. [Available from Chronicle Guidance Publications, 1-800-899-0454 or]
Computer-Based Career Guidance Systems. Career information systems provide information about schools, occupations, financial aid, and more, and can be found at many career resource centers, libraries, and vocational offices.
Dictionary of Holland Occupational Codes (DHOC). A book that lists over 12,000 occupational titles and their Holland codes. [Available from Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., 1-800-331-TEST or]
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). A book that provides brief descriptions of the work done in over 12,000 occupations. [Available from Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., 1-800-331-TEST or]
Educational Opportunities Finder (EOF). A booklet listing over 750 fields of study in universities, colleges, vocational schools, and community colleges that match Holland codes. [Available from Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., 1-800-331-TEST or]
Guide for Occupational Exploration (GOE). A book describing hundreds of occupations, training programs, and leisure activities. [Available from JIST Works, Inc.,]
Leisure Activities Finder (LAF). A booklet listing over 700 leisure activities that match Holland codes. [Available from Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., 1-800-331-TEST or]
Occupations Finder (OF; SDS Form R). A booklet with 1,309 occupations listed by three-letter Holland codes. It includes DOT numbers for each occupation listed, which helps in locating information in the DOT. It also has estimated level of education required for the occupation. [Available from Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., 1-800-331-TEST or]
Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH). The best single source of occupational information, published every 2 years by the U.S. Department of Labor. It has detailed, current information about hundreds of occupations. [Available from JIST Works, Inc., or]

Resources Used to Generate This Report

The SDS Interpretive Report includes information from the following sources: SDS Form R Assessment Booklet by John L. Holland (Copyright © 1994 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.), the My Vocational Situation by John L. Holland, Denise C. Daiger, and Paul G. Power (Copyright © 1980 by Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.), The Occupations Finder by John L. Holland (Copyright © 2000 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.), the You and Your Career booklet by John L. Holland (Copyright © 1994 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.), The Educational Opportunities Finder by Donald Rosen, Kay Holmberg, and John L. Holland (Copyright © 1997 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.), The Leisure Activities Finder by Kay Holmberg, Donald Rosen, and John L. Holland (Copyright © 1997 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.), Making Vocational Choices by John L. Holland (Copyright © 1997 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.), the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Professional User’s Guide by John L. Holland, Amy B. Powell, & Barbara A. Fritzsche (Copyright © 1997 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.), and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Technical Manual by John L. Holland, Barbara A. Fritzsche, and Amy B. Powell (Copyright © 1997 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.).
--- End of Report ---


Post a Comment

<< Home